Detection of Hazards
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June 28, 2014 at 3:14 pm #82395
Having all the all the masks, suits, and other equipment won’t do you any good if you don’t have ability to detect/alert to threats.
Sure there can be obvious signs such as a mushroom cloud on the horizon, but you won’t have such a sign from a Nuclear Power Plant failure.
Since you have already took both Samuel Culper III and My advice in the “Intelligence Support to the Warfighter” section of this Forum and conducted a preliminary IPB for your AO (You have done this haven’t you?).
Remember this important step of your IPB needs to look beyond your immediate AO. What are the variance of the prevailing winds for each season and what lies upwind of your AO.
Here is a general Map of Nuclear Power Reactor Sites.
The United States stockpile of unitary lethal chemical warfare munitions consists of various rockets, projectiles, mines, and bulk items containing blister agents (mustard H, HD, HT) and nerve agents (VX, GB). About 60% of this stockpile is in bulk storage containers; 40% is stored in munitions, many of which are now obsolete. The stockpile is stored at eight sites throughout the Continental US (Edgewood Chemical Activity, MD; Anniston Chemical Activity, AL; Blue Grass Chemical Activity, KY; Newport Chemical Depot, IN; Pine Bluff Chemical Activity, AR; Pueblo Chemical Depot, CO; Deseret Chemical Activity, UT; and Umatilla Chemical Depot, OR) and at one site outside of the Continental US on Johnston Atoll.
General locations of Biosafety Level 3 and 4 facilities Click for a bigger map.
Above are specific threat areas to consider during the IPB process.
Next we will discuss the various methods of detection available to us.
July 25, 2014 at 1:54 pm #82396
Let’s discuss the CW detection alarms available to us as civilians.
Here is a quick overview of the CW threat.
Chemical Weapon (CW) is a device that uses chemicals formulated to inflict death or harm on human beings.
Chemical weapons can be widely dispersed in gas, liquid and solid forms. Nerve gas, tear gas, and pepper spray are three modern examples.
The most dangerous of these are nerve agents GA, GB, and VX, and vesicant (blister) agents which are formulations of sulfur mustard such as H, HT, and HD. All are liquids at normal room temperature, but become gaseous when released.
Phosgene oxime (CX), Lewisite (L), Sulfur Mustard (HD), Nitrogen Mustard (HN)
Tabun (GA), Sarin (GB), Soman (GD), Cyclosarin (GF), VX (VX)
Cyanogen chloride (CK), Hydrogen cyanide (AC)
Chloropicrin (PS), Phosgene (CG), Diphosgene (DP), Chlorine (CI)
The primary alarm available is the Automatic Liquid Agent Detector (ALAD) AN/PSR-2 System.
The ALAD provides the user with an automatic liquid chemical agent detector. ALADs are intended for use with existing vapor detectors.
The AN/PSR-2 system is a self-contained, battery powered, portable liquid chemical agent detector. It will detect 200 micron-size droplets or larger of liquid GD, VX, Mustard, or Lewisite chemical agents on the sensor within 60 seconds.
The ALAD theory of operation is divided into five circuit groups: power, controller board, sensor, internal alarms, and external alarms. The ALAD operates on battery or AC power. A nonrechargeable BA-5588/U lithium sulfur dioxide battery provides DC power to the ALAD (Note: any competent electronics tech/electrician or advanced hobbyist could easily make a rechargeable battery unit to replace this difficult to find battery). It provides power for at least 30 days. A power switch controls both AC and DC power to the detector unit. When the power is set to [ON] the unit starts a self-diagnostic test. A microprocessor controls all functions of the detector unit. The detector unit also has built-in protection from electro-magnetic pulses (EMP).
The system has an internal horn and lamp alarm. The horn sounds either, when chemicals are present, or when signals faults occur in the system. The lamp alarm provides continuous flashing light when an alarm signal is received from the ALAD. A low battery LED provides continuous warning light when battery voltage is low. The test push-button provides self-test to ensure the horn and lamp are working.
The unit is capable of operating with remote auxiliary alarms. Two different auxiliary alarms can be connected to the detector unit, the BZ-90/PSR-2 and the chemical agent automatic alarm unit ABCA-M42. When a chemical agent is detected it sends a signal to these alarms. The BZ-90/PSR-2, commonly referred to as the BZ-90 alarm comes with the ALAD. The ABCA-M42, commonly referred to as the M42 is compatible with the ALAD. (Note: these will probably not be part of AN/PSR-2 System purchased as surplus, but again can be easily created)
External alarms may be connected with field wire up to a distance of 1000 feet from the detector unit assembly. Signal posts on the system provides quick connections between the ALAD detector unit and auxiliary alarms. (Note: the reason for external alarms to be located away from sensor is to provide sufficient stand off to don protective equipment before CW reaches your area, in an ideal case you would have at least four sensors deployed around your perimeter, in a pinch keeping one sensor upwind of your location could be used with a person tasked with moving sensor as winds shift)
ALAD Operation: -30 to 125°F – Storage – 75 to 165°F. Auxiliary Alarm Operation: -30 to 125°F Storage -75 to 165°F
Sensor Disc Service Life. 30 days after removal from package if not contaminated. The Shelf life is 5 years. Expired sensor discs can be used for training. If they are not available, simulated reading can be obtained by making an electrical connection between the inner and outer posts on the ALAD.
Sensor Disc Operating Ranges. -30 to 125°F.
Sensor Disc Storage Ranges. -30 to 160°F.
Alarm has detected a CW Threat.
The above AN/PSR-2 System information is available in AIR FORCE HANDBOOK 32-4014, Volume 3, 1 February 1998, USAF OPERATIONS IN A CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL (CB) WARFARE ENVIRONMENT, DEFENSE EQUIPMENT and is in the below attachment.
Available for $80-$160.
Unfortunately there are no other Alarms readily available, if anyone comes across any others please let us know.
Next we will go over the various methods to confirm Alarm/detection.
July 27, 2014 at 8:49 pm #82397
I see 123 views but no questions yet.
Gents please feel free to ask question of the poster.
September 16, 2014 at 8:22 pm #82398
The following is currently available to civilians to confirm Chemical Alarm/detections.
The M256 chemical agent detection kit is probably the best bang for the money since it can verify both droplets and vapor at a relatively affordable price. Everyone should have some extra M-8 Paper and M-9 Tape available.
The M18A3 chemical agent detector in an outstanding piece of equipment, however with a price of about $1200 and up it is cost prohibitive. I include it since it is available for civilian purchase.
Many detectors utilize radioactive components that prohibit their sale to civilians.
Most of this information has been cut and pasted from various Manuals with some edits by me for either clarity or for use by our primarily civilian audience.
All CBRN detection equipment has been designed for use by people in full protective equipment in extreme stress situations, which makes it a checklist step by step simple procedure to utilize.
M256 CHEMICAL DETECTION KIT
The M256 chemical agent detector is a portable, expendable item that consists of a carrying case with straps, 12 sampler-detectors, one book of M-8 paper, and a set of operational instruction cards. You will use the samplerdetectors to test for chemical agents in the vapor form. The M-8 paper is used to check for chemical agents in the liquid form.
The 12 sampler-detectors are individually wrapped. Each sampler-detector consists of eight glass ampoules (each filled with chemical reagent), three test spots, a chemical heater, protective strips, and tabs. Each sampler-detector has instructions for its use printed on the outside of its protective bag. Formed channels in the plastic sheets direct the flow of the reagents from the finger-crushable ampoules to wet the test spots at the time of testing. SAFE/DANGER observations are printed on each sampler-detector. They show the approximate color that each spot develops if the agent is present and if it is absent.
To detect mustards (H and HD) and phosgene oxime (CX), the square test spot is used with the blister reagent ampoules and the chemical heater. To detect lewisite (L), the lewisite detecting tablet and the lewisite tablet rubbing tab are used. A pull tab covers the lewisite detecting tablet.
To detect hydrogen cyanide (AC) and cyanogen chloride (CK), the circular test spot is used with the blood reagent ampoules.
To detect nerve agents (V and G), the starshaped test spot is used with the nerve reagent ampoules.
The hinged protective strip, used in the closed position, protects the blood and nerve agent test spots. The colored beads in the ampoules have no operational function. They are installed during manufacture of the sampler-detector as an aid in identifying the sampler ampoules.
One book of M-8 chemical agent detector paper is also included in the M256 kit. Use the M-8 paper as discussed earlier in the chemical agent detection paper section of this chapter. One set of operational instruction cards is attached to the case by a lanyard. These cards contain instructions on the use of the M256 kit.
The M256 kit is a portable means for CBR monitoring teams to detect concentrations of nerve, blister, or blood agents; to differentiate between classes of agents; and to help determine when it is safe to remove CBR protective masks and clothing. The M256 kit has replaced the M15A2 chemical agent detector kit that was used just a few years ago.
When using the M256 kit to detect vapors in the air, you should use the following procedures:
1. Remove the three operational instruction cards from the kit. Read these instructions before proceeding.
2. Remove a sampler-detector from the kit. Check to ensure that it has not exceeded its discard expiration date. Do not use an outdated samplerdetector because it will not give you a reliable test indication.
3. Read the instructions on both sides of the protective bag before proceeding.
4. Open the sampler-detector bag by tearing the bag along the tear line that is marked with arrows. Hold the sampler-detector on the windward side from you to keep from picking up vapors from your protective equipment. Do not allow excessive moisture, such as rain and dew, to come in contact with the sampler-detector.
5. Carefully remove the sampler-detector from its protective bag. Save the protective bag to refer to the instructions that are printed on it. Do not touch the sampler-detector agent test spots because incorrect test results may be produced.
6. Handle the sampler-detector carefully. Hold it by the hinged protective strip in the closed position. Keep the protective strip in the closed position to protect the test spots.
7. Swing the hinged heater assembly away from the test spot and discard the two loose protective strips under the hinged heater assembly.
8. PuII off and discard the pull tab (marked 1) to expose the lewisite detecting tablet.
9. Rub the top half of the white paper side of the lewisite tablet rubbing tab (marked 2) on the lewisite detecting tablet. Repeat the rubbing until a mark is visible.
10. Hold the sampler-detector in the vertical position so that the ampoules are down.
11. Crush the four reagent ampoules in the three center pockets (marked 3) with your finger.
12. Rotate the sampler-detector until the test spots are in a down position. Force the liquid from the four ampoules through the formed channels to the test spots to ensure wetting.
13. Check to ensure that the hinged protective strip is over the test spots. Hold the sampler-detector horizontal with the left thumb over the center test spot.
14. Make sure that the hinged heater assembly is away from the test spot. The heater produces hot vapors and is hot to the touch. Keep the sampler-detector away from your face and bare skin once the ampoules have been broken.
15. Crush one of the two green ampoules (marked 4) with your finger. Immediately swing the hinged heater assembly over the test spot. Vent the vapor away from your body. Leave the hinged heater assembly in place for 2 minutes.
16. Swing the hinged heater assembly and the hinged protective strip away from the test spot after the 2 minutes have passed.
17. Hold the sampler-detector by the hinged protective strip.
18. Expose the test spots to the air for 10 minutes while shielding the sampler-detector from direct sunlight.
19. Crush the second green ampoule (marked 4) with your finger. Swing the hinged heater assembly over the test spot, and vent the vapor away from you. Leave the hinged heater assembly in place for 1 minute.
20. Swing the hinged heater assembly away from the test spot after 1 minute has passed.
21. Hold the sampler-detector vertically with the test spots down.
22. Crush the remaining ampoules (marked 5) with your finger. Force the liquid from the two ampoules through the formed channels to the test spots to ensure wetting.
23. Rerub the lewisite detecting tablet with the lewisite tablet rubbing tab. Make sure that the second rub mark is next to the first rub mark.
24. Immediately turn the sampler-detector over to determine whether safe or danger conditions exist. Observe the lewisite tablet rubbing tab for a difference in color between the two rub marks. Also, you can use the operational instruction cards to make a color comparison.
You can compare the blood agent and the lewisite tests immediately after the prescribed exposure time. The blister agents (H and CX) develop color immediately after all of the ampoules are broken. The nerve agent test requires a waiting period of 2 minutes. Disregard the small, blue areas under the plastic rim of the nerve agent spot. The blue coloring is caused by the humidity. The nerve spot may become difficult to wet with the solutions as the kit ages. You have to work the solutions to the spot carefully. At low concentrations, a change in the lewisite tablet rub mark may be very slight. Compare the first rub mark with the second rub mark before making a judgement. Yellow and orange colors sometimes occur on the blood test spot when no agent is present. A pink or blue color must be present for the test to be positive.
If the suspected surface contamination is in the form of a liquid, use the M-8 paper as discussed earlier. Keep the M256 kit stored in a cool, dry area when not in use. Be sure that the case is kept closed. Inspect the M256 kit completely before using to make sure you have all of the equipment needed. If any of the components are missing or the blood agent test spot is pinkish, do not use the sampler-detector.
M-8 Chemical Paper
$10-$20 per booklet
$30-$70 per Roll
Chemical Agent Detection Paper
Two types of chemical agent detection paper are being used in the U.S. at the present time- the M-8 and the M-9. The M-9 paper is relatively new, and it supplements the M-8 paper. The M-9 paper does not replace the M-8 paper. Both types of paper are requisitioned separately through the supply system.
M-8 PAPER.- The M-8 chemical agent detection paper is issued in a book of 25 split sheets (50 separate responses). It is chemically treated, dye impregnated, and perforated for easy removal. This paper detects the presence of liquid V agents, G agents (nerve), and H agents (blister/mustard). When the M-8 paper is brought in contact with the suspected chemical agent, the chemicals in the paper react with the agent to produce specific color changes. The sheet of paper is then matched to the color comparison chart printed on the inside front cover of the M-8 book. Liquid droplets as small as 125-200 microns will produce a color change that is detectable by the naked eye. Response time is approximately 20 seconds.
NOTE: Certain agents give a red-brown color response, which is intermediate between the typical H and the typical G colors.
When using the M-8 paper, follow these procedures:
1. Detach a sheet of detector paper from the book and attach it to your clothing, or place it on a surface so that it can be exposed to drops or liquid splash of chemical agents. Use masking tape or any other available means to secure the paper in place.
2. If colored spots appear, put on your protective mask. Be prepared to take proper medical action if symptoms appear.
3. Compare the colored spots with the colors on the inside cover of the detector paper book to determine what type of agent is present.
4. The paper may also be used to detect liquid contamination by placing the paper in contact with the suspect surface. A color change similar to that shown on the inside cover indicates the presence of chemical agents. This paper will NOT detect gases or vapors.
M-9 PAPER.- The new M-9 detector paper detects nerve agents (G and V) and blister agents (H and L) in the liquid state. The paper is sensitive to droplets as small as 100 microns and responds in approximately 10 seconds or less. The response time increases at temperatures below freezing. High temperatures of 160°F or above may cause a red color to appear, thus producing a false reading. The use of the M-9 detector paper is limited to agents in the liquid state; it will not detect chemical agent vapors. The M-9 detector paper has no agent specificity; the red color appears for all detectable agents.
The M-9 liquid agent detector paper is issued by the roll and is 30 feet long and 2 inches wide. It has a Mylar film backing that has adhesive and release paper on the reverse side. The roll comes in a cardboard dispenser that has a serrated metal edge for cutting. A moisture proof, resealable bag is provided for storing the dispenser after it is removed from its original shipping package.
When you open the shipping package, remove the dispenser and the plastic storage bag. Save the plastic storage bag and discard the shipping package. Immediately write or stamp the current date on the dispenser. This date will be the base line to determine the useful life of the M-9 detector paper. Remove the cutter edge protector and throw the protector away.
WARNING: The M-9 detector paper dye may cause cancer, but because very little is used, the risk is small, Always wear protective gloves when touching the detector paper. Do NOT place the detector paper in or near your mouth or on your skin.
To remove the M-9 detector paper from the dispenser, use the following procedures:
1. Start the olive drab (OD) paper strip through the slot by applying a little finger pressure with the thumb or finger.
2. Hold the detector paper strip between the forefinger and thumb of one hand and the OD paper strip between the forefinger and thumb of the other hand. Pull enough of the detector paper out through the slots for the intended use. (Pull the detector paper strip and the OD paper strip at the same time.)
3. After you pull both of the paper strips through the slots, cut the detector paper half way by pulling the strip down on the cutting edge.
4. Lift the detector paper strip up off the cutting edge, and then pull both of the strips out a little further, about 1 inch.
5. Tear through the remaining half of the detector paper strip.
6. Tear off the OD paper strip, but leave enough paper sticking out to be ready for your next use.
To attach the M-9 detector paper to equipment, use the following procedures:
1. Attach the detector paper to equipment and bulkheads at locations where it can be seen easily. Wrap the detector paper around some part of the equipment where it will not get stepped on. To help make it easier to remove the detector paper, fold 1 inch of the paper back over (adhesive side to adhesive side) to form a tab. Remember to keep the paper away from hot surfaces and direct sunlight. Heat may cause the detector paper to turn red and cause false readings.
2. To attach the detector paper to flat surfaces, place the paper on the surface. Cover the detector paper with the OD paper strip and press the detector paper into date. Be sure to make a tab, as mentioned above, to help make it easy to remove the detector paper when required.
To check the surface of an area for liquid chemical agent contamination, take a piece of the detector paper and blot the surface around the suspected contaminated area. Do not rub or scrape the detector paper across rough surfaces. Scuff marks will cause false readings. If spots on the paper appear pink, red, red-brown, red-purple, or any shade of red, take protective actions and assume that you have been exposed to a liquid chemical agent.
Do not check the detector paper under a red light because you will not be able to see the liquid chemical agent red spots. Personnel who are color-blind should not check the detector paper for red spots. Blue, yellow, green, gray, or black spots are caused by humidity, not by liquid chemical agents.
Detector paper strips that show false positive readings need to be replaced with a fresh strip. False positive readings can be caused by the following factors:
Temperatures above 125°F
DS-2 decontaminating agent
Hydraulic fluid and brake fluid
Ethylene glycol (pure antifreeze)
The detector paper will work in rain, snow, and sleet. However, the reaction to agents is slower when the detector paper is soaked. When the surfaces are wet, attach the detector paper tighter than usual to prevent it from slipping. Temperatures around 32°F slow down the speed that the paper will turn red. It may take the paper several minutes to show a color change.
When the dispenser is not in use, place it in the plastic storage bag to prevent contamination of the detector paper. Squeeze out the air before sealing the plastic storage bag. If the discard date or the useful life date has passed, replace the detector paper with a new, unopened roll.
M18A3 CHEMICAL DETECTOR KIT
$1200 and up
Note: I am not going to give detailed instructions for this unit since it would take up about twenty pages.
Purpose of Kit
The M18A3 chemical agent detector kit is designed primarily for detecting dangerous concentrations of vapors, aerosols, and liquid droplets of chemical agents which are listed in paragraph 4. This kit will be used primarily by chemical specialty personnel (MOS trained) assigned at organizational level. The kit’s capability provides for the sampling of unknown NBC agents. If a chemical agent is suspected but cannot be detected with the kit, vapor samples can be collected in sampling tubes (para 10) for forwarding to a laboratory for identification. The principal uses of the kit are:
a. For reconnaissance in areas suspected of chemical agent contamination.
b. For finding the boundaries of contaminated areas.
c. For determining the absence of a chemical agent so that unmasking following a chemical agent attack can be initiated under the conditions set forth in FM 21-40.
d. For testing for the presence of a chemical agent after decontamination.
e. For collecting samples of suspected but unidentified chemical agents.
Next we will discuss Radiological threat detection.
September 16, 2014 at 9:50 pm #82399
September 17, 2014 at 12:31 pm #82400
Information with an * denote recent addition as of 1 July 2015
Nuclear Power Plants alone justify the expense of monitoring equipment in my opinion. Various events that lead to a disruption in infrastructure can easily lead to coolant failures at these facilities. Most can only keep cooling pumps going for a couple of weeks (some less) post grid failure without fuel resupply, assuming personnel remain at their jobs which depending on event could be a big assumption.
We’ll start with a quick look at old Civil Defense and Military gear then move onto select commercial gear.
To my knowledge; at this point, this is the extent of readily available surplus which can be certified.
KI4U, Inc., is the only private radiological laboratory in the nation specializing in calibrating & re-certifying all of our country’s Civil Defense radiation detection survey meters and dosimeters, AND with over 100,000 instruments, and over 6 million doses of Potassium Iodide (KI), have ready for sale our largest emergency stockpile of both in the nation.
If you have surplus survey meter and/or dosimeters that have not been calibrated in the last few decades they need to be checked out by KI4U, Inc. If you find a deal on gear that hasn’t been certified, I would contact KI4U, Inc. to see if they can calibrate it before purchasing to avoid having a unique paperweight.
Surplus Civil Defense and Military survey meters and dosimeters that have been calibrated and re-certified start at around $300.00.
*‘The Package’ Radiation Safety Combo Package
‘The Package’ Contents:
– 1 Recently Certified Calibrated CD V-715 High-Range Survey Meter
– 3 Recently Certified Calibrated CD V-742 Dosimeters
– 1 Recently Tested & Tuned CD V-750 Dosimeter Charger
– 1 NukAlert™
– 1 KFM Ready-To-Use
– 1 RADTriage Card™
– 5 RADStickers™
– 4 Packets of ThyroSafe™ KI tablets
– 2 Adult Sized Readi Masks
– 1 Nuclear War Survival Skills book
– 1 FEMA Radiation Safety in Shelters book
– 1 The Effects of Nuclear Weapons book
– 1 Civil Defense Ultimate DVD
– 1 Hard Copies of our popular ‘Good News’ article & ‘What To Do If…’ guide.
$815.00 ea, w/ FREE shipping
The following videos depict the Civilian version, but there is no functional difference other than case color.
This is an excellent value for daily carry and I would recommend it for those that live near Nuclear Power plants. It’s battery will last ten years. Remember if a Fukushima type event happens the Government will most likely lie about extent of damage and radiation leakage to prevent panic having your own ability to monitor radiation could save both yourself and family.
More than just a radiation detector, the NukAlert™ is a patented personal radiation meter, monitor and alarm. Small enough to attach to a key chain, the device operates non-stop, 24/7 and will promptly warn you of the presence of unseen, but acutely dangerous levels of radiation.
Used nationwide by federal, state and local first responders, law enforcement and the Dept. of Defense, the device is the ideal solution for increasing individual security and awareness of radiological threats. It will be very reassuring to know, with confidence, when you and your family are out of the worst danger.
Excellent multi-function device for those that are willing to pay for this level of performance.
Unique ’Extended Range’
1µR/hr through 600R/hr
For those on a budget, below is an excellent way to have some monitoring ability for daily carry and I would recommend it for those that live near Nuclear Power plants as well as those that cannot afford above or don not believe radiation threat justifies better equipment.
RADSticker™ peel & stick, postage stamp sized, instant color developing dosimeter, is always ready and with you 24/7, stuck onto the back of your driver’s license or anything you keep close, for any future radiation emergency.
Non-electrical, reliable, rugged and useful for determining radiation exposure and if medical treatment required in a major radiological incident, such as a nuclear or dirty bomb explosion, nuclear power plant accident or mishandled radiation sources. ”Based on information available to the NRC, an average of approximately 375 sources or devices of all kinds are reported lost or stolen each year in the U.S. — that is, roughly one per day.”NRC
RADSticker™ can help you to minimize additional radiation exposure to As Low As Reasonably Achievable, ideally, well less than 100 rads, as that’s 100% survivable for healthy adults, if not exceeded. ”Very few of those receiving acute doses (received within 24 hours) of less than 100 R would become sick, even briefly.”NWSS However, govt agencies advise radiation workers to try to limit their normal exposure to 5 rad per year and 25 rad for lifetime and emergency workers to 50 rad. 10 11 (Limits lower for children & fetuses.)
Wider public adoption of RADStickers™ will empower First-Responders then to quickly triage those actually exposed in need of medical attention, from the sea of people who will naturally feel sick just from worry and fear of radiation exposure during a crisis without a RADSticker™ to tell them otherwise. RADStickers™ both quell public fear & panic and allows our First-Responders and medical resources to then focus where most urgently needed.
RADSticker™ is made under U.S. Patents #7,227,158; 7,476,874 and others. The technology was developed with multimillion dollar funding from several U.S. agencies, such as DHS, DOD, DOJ, DOS, DHHS and TSWG and was field tested by the DHS with 800 first responders in the states of NJ, NY and IL.
$25.00 for five RADStickers
U.S. Military-grade personal dosimeter that instantly detects radiation exposure in the event of a dirty bomb, nuclear reactor accident and other sources of radiation. This always on wallet card/badge radiation detector does not require batteries or calibration. The sensor strip instantly turns darker when it detects harmful levels of radiation. The darker the sensor strip, the higher the radiation dose.
September 22, 2014 at 8:29 am #82401
We always get a lot of questions on these specifics in the CBRN Seminar at MVT and I send them to this resource.
Hopefully people make good use of the info posted by GWNS.
September 22, 2014 at 5:06 pm #82402
Biological Warfare (BW) Detection
Unfortunately there is nothing readily available at this time for detection of BW for the civilian.
We will have to rely on reports from any available sources depending on the scenario. As Rationalists our medical stores, training, and references will/may be all we have for both defense and treatment of any causalities.
Various vaccines are available for some BW’s such as Smallpox. Some of these immunizations can be obtained through various practitioners for travel to areas where higher likelihood for exposure is expected. You as an individual or head of household need to consider the pros and cons of such vaccinations and make a informed decision for yourselves.
Other BW’s such as Anthrax can be prevented/treated with antibiotics.
This is a extremely brief general overview of an complex subject, will answer/research any questions you may have.
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